14 CFR 91.227

§91.227   Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements.

(a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section:

ADS-B Out is a function of an aircraft’s onboard avionics that periodically broadcasts the aircraft’s state vector (3-dimensional position and 3-dimensional velocity) and other required information as described in this section.

Navigation Accuracy Category for Position (NACP) specifies the accuracy of a reported aircraft’s position, as defined in TSO-C166b and TSO-C154c.

Navigation Accuracy Category for Velocity (NACV) specifies the accuracy of a reported aircraft’s velocity, as defined in TSO-C166b and TSO-C154c.

Navigation Integrity Category (NIC) specifies an integrity containment radius around an aircraft’s reported position, as defined in TSO-C166b and TSO-C154c.

Position Source refers to the equipment installed onboard an aircraft used to process and provide aircraft position (for example, latitude, longitude, and velocity) information.

Source Integrity Level (SIL) indicates the probability of the reported horizontal position exceeding the containment radius defined by the NIC on a per sample or per hour basis, as defined in TSO-C166b and TSO-C154c.

System Design Assurance (SDA) indicates the probability of an aircraft malfunction causing false or misleading information to be transmitted, as defined in TSO-C166b and TSO-C154c.

Total latency is the total time between when the position is measured and when the position is transmitted by the aircraft.

Uncompensated latency is the time for which the aircraft does not compensate for latency.

(b) 1090 MHz ES and UAT Broadcast Links and Power Requirements—

(1) Aircraft operating in Class A airspace must have equipment installed that meets the antenna and power output requirements of Class A1, A1S, A2, A3, B1S, or B1 equipment as defined in TSO-C166b, Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) Equipment Operating on the Radio Frequency of 1090 Megahertz (MHz).

(2) Aircraft operating in airspace designated for ADS-B Out, but outside of Class A airspace, must have equipment installed that meets the antenna and output power requirements of either:

(i) Class A1, A1S, A2, A3, B1S, or B1 as defined in TSO-C166b; or

(ii) Class A1H, A1S, A2, A3, B1S, or B1 equipment as defined in TSO-C154c, Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Equipment Operating on the Frequency of 978 MHz.

(c) ADS-B Out Performance Requirements for NAC P, NACV, NIC, SDA, and SIL—

(1) For aircraft broadcasting ADS-B Out as required under §91.225 (a) and (b)—

(i) The aircraft’s NACP must be less than 0.05 nautical miles;

(ii) The aircraft’s NACV must be less than 10 meters per second;

(iii) The aircraft’s NIC must be less than 0.2 nautical miles;

(iv) The aircraft’s SDA must be 2; and

(v) The aircraft’s SIL must be 3.

(2) Changes in NACP, NACV, SDA, and SIL must be broadcast within 10 seconds.

(3) Changes in NIC must be broadcast within 12 seconds.

(d) Minimum Broadcast Message Element Set for ADS-B Out. Each aircraft must broadcast the following information, as defined in TSO-C166b or TSO-C154c. The pilot must enter information for message elements listed in paragraphs (d)(7) through (d)(10) of this section during the appropriate phase of flight.

(1) The length and width of the aircraft;

(2) An indication of the aircraft’s latitude and longitude;

(3) An indication of the aircraft’s barometric pressure altitude;

(4) An indication of the aircraft’s velocity;

(5) An indication if TCAS II or ACAS is installed and operating in a mode that can generate resolution advisory alerts;

(6) If an operable TCAS II or ACAS is installed, an indication if a resolution advisory is in effect;

(7) An indication of the Mode 3/A transponder code specified by ATC;

(8) An indication of the aircraft’s call sign that is submitted on the flight plan, or the aircraft’s registration number, except when the pilot has not filed a flight plan, has not requested ATC services, and is using a TSO-C154c self-assigned temporary 24-bit address;

(9) An indication if the flightcrew has identified an emergency, radio communication failure, or unlawful interference;

(10) An indication of the aircraft’s “IDENT” to ATC;

(11) An indication of the aircraft assigned ICAO 24-bit address, except when the pilot has not filed a flight plan, has not requested ATC services, and is using a TSO-C154c self-assigned temporary 24-bit address;

(12) An indication of the aircraft’s emitter category;

(13) An indication of whether an ADS-B In capability is installed;

(14) An indication of the aircraft’s geometric altitude;

(15) An indication of the Navigation Accuracy Category for Position (NACP);

(16) An indication of the Navigation Accuracy Category for Velocity (NACV);

(17) An indication of the Navigation Integrity Category (NIC);

(18) An indication of the System Design Assurance (SDA); and

(19) An indication of the Source Integrity Level (SIL).

(e) ADS-B Latency Requirements—

(1) The aircraft must transmit its geometric position no later than 2.0 seconds from the time of measurement of the position to the time of transmission.

(2) Within the 2.0 total latency allocation, a maximum of 0.6 seconds can be uncompensated latency. The aircraft must compensate for any latency above 0.6 seconds up to the maximum 2.0 seconds total by extrapolating the geometric position to the time of message transmission.

(3) The aircraft must transmit its position and velocity at least once per second while airborne or while moving on the airport surface.

(4) The aircraft must transmit its position at least once every 5 seconds while stationary on the airport surface.

(f) Equipment with an approved deviation. Operators with equipment installed with an approved deviation under §21.618 of this chapter also are in compliance with this section.

(g) Incorporation by Reference. The standards required in this section are incorporated by reference with the approval of the Director of the Office of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. All approved materials are available for inspection at the FAA’s Office of Rulemaking (ARM-1), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20590 (telephone 202-267-9677), or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. This material is also available from the sources indicated in paragraphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this section.

(1) Copies of Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C166b, Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) Equipment Operating on the Radio Frequency of 1090 Megahertz (MHz) (December 2, 2009) and TSO-C154c, Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Equipment Operating on the Frequency of 978 MHz (December 2, 2009) may be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Subsequent Distribution Office, DOT Warehouse M30, Ardmore East Business Center, 3341 Q 75th Avenue, Landover, MD 20785; telephone (301) 322-5377. Copies of TSO -C166B and TSO-C154c are also available on the FAA’s Web site, at http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/air_cert/design_approvals/tso/. Select the link “Search Technical Standard Orders.”

(2) Copies of Section 2, Equipment Performance Requirements and Test Procedures, of RTCA DO-260B, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for 1090 MHz Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services-Broadcast (TIS-B), December 2, 2009 (referenced in TSO-C166b) and Section 2, Equipment Performance Requirements and Test Procedures, of RTCA DO-282B, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), December 2, 2009 (referenced in TSO C-154c) may be obtained from RTCA, Inc., 1828 L Street, NW., Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036-5133, telephone 202-833-9339. Copies of RTCA DO-260B and RTCA DO-282B are also available on RTCA Inc.’s Web site, at http://www.rtca.org/onlinecart/allproducts.cfm.

14 CFR 91.225

§91.225   Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment and use.

(a) After January 1, 2020, and unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft in Class A airspace unless the aircraft has equipment installed that—

(1) Meets the performance requirements in TSO-C166b, Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) Equipment Operating on the Radio Frequency of 1090 Megahertz (MHz); and

(2) Meets the requirements of §91.227.

(b) After January 1, 2020, and unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft below 18,000 feet MSL and in airspace described in paragraph (d) of this section unless the aircraft has equipment installed that—

(1) Meets the performance requirements in—

(i) TSO-C166b; or

(ii) TSO-C154c, Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Equipment Operating on the Frequency of 978 MHz;

(2) Meets the requirements of §91.227.

(c) Operators with equipment installed with an approved deviation under §21.618 of this chapter also are in compliance with this section.

(d) After January 1, 2020, and unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft in the following airspace unless the aircraft has equipment installed that meets the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section:

(1) Class B and Class C airspace areas;

(2) Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section, within 30 nautical miles of an airport listed in appendix D, section 1 to this part from the surface upward to 10,000 feet MSL;

(3) Above the ceiling and within the lateral boundaries of a Class B or Class C airspace area designated for an airport upward to 10,000 feet MSL;

(4) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, Class E airspace within the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia at and above 10,000 feet MSL, excluding the airspace at and below 2,500 feet above the surface; and

(5) Class E airspace at and above 3,000 feet MSL over the Gulf of Mexico from the coastline of the United States out to 12 nautical miles.

(e) The requirements of paragraph (b) of this section do not apply to any aircraft that was not originally certificated with an electrical system, or that has not subsequently been certified with such a system installed, including balloons and gliders. These aircraft may conduct operations without ADS-B Out in the airspace specified in paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(4) of this section. Operations authorized by this section must be conducted—

(1) Outside any Class B or Class C airspace area; and

(2) Below the altitude of the ceiling of a Class B or Class C airspace area designated for an airport, or 10,000 feet MSL, whichever is lower.

(f) Each person operating an aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out must operate this equipment in the transmit mode at all times.

(g) Requests for ATC authorized deviations from the requirements of this section must be made to the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the concerned airspace within the time periods specified as follows:

(1) For operation of an aircraft with an inoperative ADS-B Out, to the airport of ultimate destination, including any intermediate stops, or to proceed to a place where suitable repairs can be made or both, the request may be made at any time.

(2) For operation of an aircraft that is not equipped with ADS-B Out, the request must be made at least 1 hour before the proposed operation.

(h) The standards required in this section are incorporated by reference with the approval of the Director of the Office of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. All approved materials are available for inspection at the FAA’s Office of Rulemaking (ARM-1), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20590 (telephone 202-267-9677), or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. This material is also available from the sources indicated in paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2) of this section.

(1) Copies of Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C166b, Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) Equipment Operating on the Radio Frequency of 1090 Megahertz (MHz) (December 2, 2009) and TSO-C154c, Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Equipment Operating on the Frequency of 978 MHz (December 2, 2009) may be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Subsequent Distribution Office, DOT Warehouse M30, Ardmore East Business Center, 3341 Q 75th Avenue, Landover, MD 20785; telephone (301) 322-5377. Copies of TSO -C166B and TSO-C154c are also available on the FAA’s Web site, at http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/air_cert/design_approvals/tso/. Select the link “Search Technical Standard Orders.”

(2) Copies of Section 2, Equipment Performance Requirements and Test Procedures, of RTCA DO-260B, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for 1090 MHz Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services-Broadcast (TIS-B), December 2, 2009 (referenced in TSO-C166b) and Section 2, Equipment Performance Requirements and Test Procedures, of RTCA DO-282B, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), December 2, 2009 (referenced in TSO C-154c) may be obtained from RTCA, Inc., 1828 L Street, NW., Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036-5133, telephone 202-833-9339. Copies of RTCA DO-260B and RTCA DO-282B are also available on RTCA Inc.’s Web site, at http://www.rtca.org/onlinecart/allproducts.cfm.

Airspace

Class E Airspace

  • Dashed Magenta = Beginning at the Surface
  • Fuzzy Side of Magenta Vignette= Starts at 700’AGL
  • Fuzzy Side of Blue Vignette = 1200′ AGL
  • Not Indicated = 14,500′ MSL

Class E Airports Nearby

  • BLH – Blyth
  • EED – Needles
  • INW – Winslow
  • DMN – Deming
  • TCS – Truth or Consequences

Class D Airspace

  • Control Tower
  • (Dialogue) 2 Way Radio Communication Prior to Entry w/call sign
  • Blue Dashed Line
  • Surface to 2500′ AGL
    • Indicated on Chart with numbers, ex:
      • [95] means up to and including 9500′ MSL
      • [-38] means up to 3800′ MSL but not including 3800 (Below 3800′ MSL)
  • Must Contact Tower prior to entry/after depart if entering/leaving secondary airport.
  • One aircraft on runway at a tiome
  • No separation for VFR Aircraft
  • Provide traffic advisories and sequencing

Class D Airports Nearby

  • SDL – Scottsdale [-40] = below/up to 4000′ MSL
  • IFP – Laughlin/Bullhead City [32] = 3200′ MSL
  • FLG – Flagstaff [95] = 9500′ MSL
  • PRC -Prescott [75] = 7500′ MSL
  • DVT – Deer Valley [-40] below/up to 4000′ MSL
  • GYR – Goodyear [-30] = below/up to 3000′ MSL
  • FFZ – Falcon Field [-34] = below/up to 3400′ MSL
  • IWA – Mesa/Gateway [39] = 3900′ MSL
  • CHD – Chandler [-30] = below/up to 3000′ MSL
  • GEU Glendale [-30] = below/up to 3000′ MSL

Class C Airspace

  • Congested
  • Larger Airports with Tower & Radar Service
  • More traffic than D but less than B
  • Requires:
    • 2 way communication without being told not to enter
    • Radar Beacon Transponder (mode c)
  • Solid Magenta Lines
    • 5 Nautical Mile Radius – Surface to 4000′ AGL
    • 10 Nautical Mile Boundary – 1200′-4000′ AGL
    • 10 Nautical Mile Boundary – (recommended communication before entering)
  • Tower Provides Separation on Runway
  • Radar Controllers provide Basic Radar Service, Separation of Aircraft & Sequencing of VFR aircraft.

Nearby Class C Airports

  • TUS – Tucson – 4200′-6600′
    66/42
  • ELP – El Paso – Surface-8000′
    80/SFC
    – and 5200′-8000′
    80/52

 

Class B Airspace

  • Big Jets, Boeing
  • LAX, ORD, NYC
  • Control Tower, Radar + Secondary airports
  • Need 2 Way Communication, Radar Beacon Transponder, ATC Clearance, Private Pilot Certificate
  • Solid Blue Lines
  • Shelf Floor Lowers closer to the airport

Training Tools

  • Map of Airport & Landing Procedures (Downwind, Base Leg, Final Approach, Etc)
  • Sample ATC Messages with printout
  • Checklists in Order of Operation
  • Flight Electronics Printout and Tutorial
  • Taxi Map and Printout
  • Make List of Nearby Class A,B,C,D,E Airports and Associated Airspace Altitudes (See Airspace Post)
  • Get Medical then apply for Student Pilot Cert. – Takes about 3 weeks -(Flight schools may want to delay this to get more training hours before solo)
  • Aeronautical Chart User Guide
  • Cessna 172N Standardization (Maneuvers)

 

Climb Checklist

After Takeoff and at around 1000′ AGL above ground level is when to check the Climb Checklist. This will include:

  • Flaps Fully Retracted
  • Transition to Cruise Climb Airspeed

 

When Ready to Takeoff

Here is the procedure when ready to takeoff:

Before Takeoff

  • Taxi onto runway
  • Establish Crosswind Direction
  • Use the Centerline for reference
  • Start the Takeoff Roll
  • Apply Full Power
  • Check That Engine Indicators are in the Green
  • Use Rudder as Necessary

At Takeoff Speed

  • Let aircraft lift itself off the runway
  • Pitch the aircraft (Just below 10 Degrees)
  • Right Rudder

Once Safe Climb is Established

  • Verify that the aircraft is coordinated
  • Retract flaps if used
  • Make sure you are going straight

Crosswind Takeoff

  • Use Aileron Control into the wind
  • Point the wheel into the direction of the wing
  • Gradually reduce Aileron control as speed is gained

Before Taxi Lineup Checklist

This is a simple checklist that should be done before taxiing on the runway.

Lineup Checklist

  • Landing Light – ON
  • Transponder – SET
  • Mixture – Full Rich (As Appropriate for Altitude)
  • Final Approach – CLEAR

Lights, Camera, Action

 

External Pre-Flight Checklist

I wanted to put together a checklist for the external pre-flight procedures to ensure a safe and thorough pre-flight inspection. Below is the list of items that I have compiled from numerous online checklists. I have condensed them and broken them down into several sub-groups which seem to make the process flow for me a little better. Each and every checklist I have found has varied to some degree, but I think the basics should all be covered. This Pre-Flight Checklist was put together with the Cessna 172 Skyhawk in mind since that’s the primary aircraft I am training in.

I usually begin my pre-flight inspection while walking up to the aircraft. Basically, I am taking note of what should be expected and to note if there are any irregularities or anything out of the ordinary. Part of this process is to assess how the previous user left the aircraft and to determine if the previous user left the aircraft in the best condition possible.

Before Getting to the Aircraft:

  • Aircraft Specific Items
      • AROW Items
      • Air Worthiness Certificate
      • Registration
      • Operating Limitations
      • Weight and Balance
    • Keys
    • POH
    • Headset
    • Kneepad
    • Notebook/Pen
When Walking up to the aircraft

Theses are all very simple steps to take that can be accomplished while walking up to the aircraft.Do you have the Aircraft book which includes the following:

  • Are the tires chalked?
  • Is the aircraft tied down on both sides
  • Are any of the tires flat?
  • Is there any visible damage to any part of the aircraft?
  • Any oils, water, fuel or other substance leaking, dripping or spilling from the aircraft?
  • Are there any parts/pieces or any type of debris on the ground?
  • Is the tow bar still connected?

Once I have made it to the aircraft, the external pre-flight inspections next. I like to break this down into a few small chunks to make it simple and to ensure I cover all of my bases. As a student pilot, I am being billed per hobbs time, so the clock is ticking any time the master switch is on. While I do not want to rush the inspection, I do want to turn the lights on, check the lights, then shut off the master as to not be billed more than I need to be. Also, since we are checking the lights at this point, we do not want to cause any confusion with regards to other aircraft or our intentions at this point, so the least time with the lights on at this point, the less confusing it will be.

  • Remove the Tow Bar
  • Remove the Pitot tube cover
  • Open the cockpit door
  • Put Binder on Pilot seat and make sure the Keys and
  • Put the pitot tube cover in the back seat
  • Remove the control lock
  • Check all of the
  • Turn on Master Power
  • Turn on Lights & Switches (starting with the top row)
    • Landing Light – LDG LT
    • Pitot Heat -PITOT HEAT
    • Navigation lights – NAV LT
    • Beacon Light- BCN LT
    • Strobe Light – STROBE LT

Once those are switched on from inside the cockpit, I then go outside the aircraft to physically inspect the lights. I start at the front of the aircraft and  circle the aircraft counter clockwise towards the pilot side first.

  • Landing Light – front of the aircraft below the propeller
  • Port Side Wing Navigation Light – this is the “pilot-side” navigation light that will be a steady red light near the leading edge of the wing. – Gently feel the light to ensure it isn’t loose or damaged.
  • Port Side Wing Strobe Light -This is a flashing white light located near the red port side navigation light. Gently feel the light to ensure it isn’t loose or damaged.
  • Tail Light – Solid White Light
  • Tail Beacon Anti-Collision Light – this is a rotating red beacon light mounted to the top of the tail.
  • Starboard Side Wing Navigation Light – this is the passenger side navigation light that will be a steady green light near the leading edge of the wing.
  • Starboard Side Wing Strobe Light – This is a flashing white light near the wingtip on the starboard (passenger) side.
  • Check pitot tube for heat – be careful, this may be hot.
  • Return back to the cockpit and notate the level of fuel indicated on the fuel gauge
  • Turn off the lights and Master power.

Once all of the lights are checked, Make sure to turn off all of the lights as well as the master switch as to not drain the battery and in my case, reduce the billing for the aircraft rental. Some of these steps may be duplicated, but safety is key here so I am ok with a little overlapping. To make this simple without all of the explanation, here is this writeup in a checklist format:

  • Remove Tow Bar
  • Remove Pitot Tube Cover
  • Remove the Control Lock
  • Turn on Master Power